The Montessori Program offers individualized instruction, which means
that the child may work and be helped on an individual basis.
Individualized learning establishes more intimate contact among the
child, the teacher, and the work. The teacher can become involved with
the child in other than a “talk-and-chalk” stance before an entire
With notice that the English curriculum( Harcourt ) which is used in the Elementary section is totally match with the Montessori standard .
Montessori individualized instruction deals in the concrete. The program permits a variety of approaches, using at every turn dynamic and colorful manipulative which materialize abstract principles. These beautiful concrete materials are used throughout the entire curriculum, including math, reading, grammar, writing, spelling, geography, history, natural and general science.
General Educational Objectives of the Montessori
Developing a body whose movements are mastered and controlled. Developing the fine coordination necessary for writing and manipulation of materials. Learning sports which can be enjoyed into adulthood.
An awareness of one's own feelings. Sensitivity to and consideration for the feelings of others. An awareness of one's effect on others.
Developing a good self-image.
The mastery of the necessary tools or skills (such as reading, writing, etc) in order to be able to pursue knowledge. An understanding of how to find information and use various media.
To become a learner who becomes independent of the adult.
An understanding of the evolution of life and a feeling of responsibility toward aiding further evolution.
An understanding that all people have the same basic needs and an appreciation for the variety of ways in which those needs are met.
An awareness of the interdependence of humankind and nature, with a responsible feeling toward an ecological whole.
An awareness of the interdependence of people and nations, with a desire for cooperation and peace.
Language is an important part of the entire Montessori curriculum. Its treatment as a separate subject comes only at the points in which it is necessary to give clarity to the child’s mind – that is, to give him or her conscious awareness of language in order that it may be used more effectively. Once the child has an understanding that writing is a graphic form of language, these special points center around spelling. Word study, penmanship, grammar, punctuation. The real experience in reading and writing comes through the child’s work in other areas of the curriculum, such as geography, history, botany, etc.
Because children have different cognitive styles, they are provided with a different means for learning to read within the environment. In this way , the child will be able to select the components of reading which fit his or her cognitive style and put them together in the way that is best for him or her.
Once reading is mastered, the child expands into reading quality literature and poetry and into self-expression through creative writing.
Manipulation of concrete and symbolic materials with built-in error control develops sound arithmetic skills and leads the child to make his or her own abstractions.
As in other parts of the Montessori curriculum, experience with a material comes first, then the spoken language or naming. This is followed by the symbolic representation or written symbol. After the material, it is appropriate verbal language, and its symbolic representation are each studied in turn, they are then associated with one another. In Montessori mathematics, this sequence is referred to as quantity, symbol, and association.
Geometry is Montessori follows the historical development of the subject.
Geometry began as a concrete experience with abstractions following at a later time.
Each child follows the same sequence. Geometry is experienced sensor ally through manipulation of both plane and solid geometric figures. These materials induce a creative activity that involves two and three dimensional construction of various forms, artistic drawings, and omamentation. As much geometric nomenclature is supplied as the child is able to assimilate, so that the child will have as much information as possible at his or her command when entering the stage of exploring why, how, and when things happen. If the six year old child has had no previous Montessori, this sensorial experience in geometry is made available immediately upon entrance into the Elementary Classroom. The foundation of the study of geometry is familiarity through sensorial experience.
Social Studies and Science
Dr. Montessori felt that social studies and science should be integrated in the classroom, as they are in life. Therefore, there are no clear distinctions or lines of demarcation among of the various areas which are included in this section when they are studied in the classroom.
The areas which follow this introduction are entitled: The Human Relation Curriculum, Geography, and History. In addition, the following subject areas are included: anthropology, astronomy, botany, chemistry, economics, geology, philosophy, physics, political behavior, sociology, and zoology.
Montessori biology is structured in such a way as to give the child a means of classification-so that he or she can structure and relate the facts of biology. The study should reveal to the child that classification approximates evolution. The ultimate goal is an ecological view of life and a feeling of responsibility for the environment. The child will see that each individual life on earth is seemingly selfish (fighting for its own survival) but in reality each serves the good of the whole. Montessori calls the development of humankind, early civilizations, and recorded history. The child sees the long labor of humankind needed to accomplish all that is enjoyed here today.
The study of geography is designed to show the physical
configurations of the earth contribute to history. The study of
geography and physical geography is the basis for the study of economic
geography-which shows the interdependence of all people.
The first science experiments are designed to give the child basic knowledge which will make possible the understanding, of the development of the solar system, the earth and its configurations, life on the needs of plants and animals.
Human Relations Curriculum
The Montessori Human Relations Curriculum serves as an organizing center in the “cultural subjects”, especially geography and history. It is introduced as early as possible in the elementary school.
The FUNDAMENTAL NEEDS OF HUMANKIND chart is placed in the classroom for this purpose of evoking discussion.
The chart illustrates the following:
|Material or Concrete Needs||Spiritual or Abstract Needs|
The discussion helps the child understand that the needs of people in all places on the earth and in all history are the same. This understanding helps to establish the idea of the interrelationship of all people. When the child can see that the needs of all people are the same, then he or she can respect and appreciate the variety of ways in which these needs are met.
In the study of history, the above list of needs is used as a guide for the child’s research into how people at various times in history met those needs. The same is true in the study of
geography; i.e, the influence of physical geography on meeting those needs, the influence of climate, seasons, natural resources
Arts and crafts
In the Montessori Elementary Class, the adult aids the child in the development of skills in order that the child may creatively express him or herself through various media. In addition to art expression for its own sake, art is an integrating factor for the rest of the curriculum. The child may utilize it in such ways as geometrical drawings, geographical maps, mathematical graphing, or illustrations for history, botany, zoology, social studies, geology, architecture, physics, etc. With a variety of techniques and media at their disposal, the elementary aged children may choose appropriate forms of artistic expression for other areas of the curriculum.
A study of the historical development of artistic expression is made available within the history material. It is developed simply at first as an idea by itself; then, as the child matures, it is related to architecture, religion, music, politics, literature, inventions, exploration, etc. Later, it is taken again by itself and studies more deeply.
Appreciation activities are a natural part of the historical study.
The art studio is immediately adjacent to, and occupies a secluded section of, the classroom environment.
The following techniques and media are available:
Crayons, chalk, and other drawing materials
Clay and other modeling mediaTextiles and Paper
Inks and dyes
Music is the Elementary Program consists of seven related elements, which are:
Music theory and ear training
Eurhythmics Production of music
Singing provides opportunities for understanding scales, expression of feelings, and understanding of other cultures. Singing provides children with a repertoire of melodies which they can use in the production and analysis of music.
The audition or listening part relates to musical expression. The feeling expressed by a piece of music, such as a folk song, or a great composer, can be absorbed and recognized by children. This in turn may lead to quiet listening and contemplation, to expression of the feeling in writing or in art , to the examining of qualities and characteristics of different musical instruments, or to the understanding of an era or a group of people through the music which they produces. This may lead to the study of style and musical form. The opportunities for expansion of the idea are limitless
All of the Elementary Class children participate in recorder and singing classes to aid in acquiring an ability to read music. Private and small group piano lessons are available during school hours at the school.
Up to the levels we have now our physical education concentrate on teaching the Elementary levels some techniques for certain games (such as Basket ball, Foot ball